Evaluation of Yantiin Kalabara – 5 Ways to a Healthier You: A primary school-based education program targeting healthy living choices through interactive workshops





health, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander, education, primary schools, evaluation


The aim of this study was to develop, implement and evaluate the novel one-day, school-based health education program Yantiin Kalabara that embedded Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander culture and perspectives within a series of interactive learning stations. In consultation with local Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members, the program was designed to encourage healthy lifestyle choices and promote strong, sustainable and mutually respectful relationships between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and non-Aboriginal Australians. It involved five primary schools within the Awabakal, Wonnarua, Darkinjung and Worimi Countries (Australia) in movement-based and culturally rich learning activities. The feasibility of the program for use in primary schools and preliminary efficacy for affecting change in key health behaviours (physical activity, nutrition, screen-time) was assessed using student questionnaires.

Yantiin Kalabara was delivered by the Hunter Primary Care team and volunteers. Students reported that it helped them improve their overall health, physical activity, eating habits and screen-time patterns. We have demonstrated that the program can be feasibly delivered in primary schools, and that the program was efficacious in affecting positive changes in key health behaviours of participating children. However, further evaluation in larger and more diverse populations using a randomised controlled trial is warranted.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Mark Babic, University of Newcastle

Dr Mark Babic is a lecturer in education at the University of Newcastle. Mark’s work is centred around health promotion, including screen-time, mental health and physical activity patterns. Mark is an accredited and proficient PDHPE teacher and is responsible for running professional development for current secondary and primary teachers. Mark works alongside several organisations to support his community, including Hunter Medical Research Institute (HMRI) and Hunter Primary Care, and works with universities nationally and internationally.

John Maynard, University of Newcastle

Emeritus Professor John Maynard is a Worimi Aboriginal man from the Port Stephens region of New South Wales. He has held several major positions and served on numerous prominent organisations and committees, including Deputy Chairperson of the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (AIATSIS) and the Executive Committee of the Australian Historical Association. Professor Maynard’s publications have concentrated on the intersections of Aboriginal political and social history, and the history of Australian race relations. He is the author of several books, including Aboriginal Stars of the Turf, Fight for Liberty and Freedom, The Aboriginal Soccer Tribe, Aborigines and the Sport of Kings and True Light and Shade.

Ruth McLeod, Hunter Primary Care

Ruth McLeod is the Manager of Research and Reporting at Hunter Primary Care, a not-for-profit primary health care organisation based in Newcastle, New South Wales. In this role, Ruth is responsible for ensuring a research-based approach to the delivery of client programs. With a background in regional research and community strategic planning, Ruth has lectured at the University of Newcastle on social issues within human services, and on regional social policy and planning. Ruth utilises well-developed, quantitative and qualitative skills to work with diverse groups in identifying issues, shared objectives and achievable solutions. Ruth is an experienced facilitator, project manager and social researcher with a passion for helping people make better decisions.

Claudine Ford, Hunter Primary Care

Claudine Ford is a primary health care professional with significant experience in the development and operation of care coordination programs and services for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, people with disability and people living with chronic illness. Claudine is currently General Manager – NDIS and Chronic Disease at Hunter Primary Care, a not-for-profit primary health care organisation based in Newcastle, New South Wales. In this role, Claudine leads a team of over 50 professionals delivering high-value primary care coordination and services. In 2022 Claudine’s team was recognised at the Hunter New England and Central Coast Primary Health Network Primary Care Quality and Innovation Awards for the Shared Health Appointments program, providing Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Care Coordination clients with online consultations in a supportive group setting.

Carla Torell, Hunter Primary Care

Carla Torell was a team leader at Hunter Primary Care and assisted with the overall planning and designing of health initiatives and programs.

Narelle Eather, University of Newcastle

Narelle Eather is the Discipline Lead for Health and Physical Education and a senior researcher in the Centre for Active Living and Learning at the University of Newcastle. The focus of Narelle’s research is the promotion of physical activity, physical fitness and sports skills among children, youth and young adults, and with the development and evaluation of theoretically driven interventions in school and community settings. More recently, her research has included the development of physical fitness and psychological health in adolescents, family-based physical activity programs, and workplace health and wellbeing programs.


Adams, J. (2006). Trends in physical activity and inactivity amongst US 14–18-year-olds by gender, school grade and race, 1993–2003: Evidence from the youth risk behavior survey. BMC Public Health, 6, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-6-57 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-6-57

Alvarez, C., Ramirez-Campillo, R., Ramirez-Velez, R., & Izquierdo, M. (2017). Effects of 6-weeks high-intensity interval training in schoolchildren with insulin resistance: Influence of biological maturation on metabolic, body composition, cardiovascular and performance non-responses. Frontiers in Physiology, 8, Article 444. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2017.00444 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2017.00444

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2014a). Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health survey: Physical activity, 2012–13. https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/4727.0.55.004main+features12012-13

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2014b). Causes of death, Australia, 2012. https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/lookup/3303.0main+features100012012

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2014c). Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey: Physical activity, 2012-13. 4727.0.55.004. Canberra: ABS.

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2016). Estimates of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. https://www.abs.gov.au/statistics/people/aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-peoples/estimates-aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-australians/latest-release

Australian Government. (2021). Physical activity and exercise guidelines for all Australians. https://www.health.gov.au/health-topics/physical-activity-and-exercise/physical-activity-and-exercise-guidelines-for-all-australians

Australian Institute of Family Studies. (2018). What promotes social and emotional wellbeing in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children? https://aifs.gov.au/publications/family-matters/issue-100/what-promotes-social-and-emotional-wellbeing-aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-children

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2018). The health and welfare of Australia’s Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. http://refhub.elsevier.com/S0277-9536(19)30326-0/sref12

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2020). Australia’s children. https://www.aihw.gov.au/getmedia/6af928d6-692e-4449-b915-cf2ca946982f/aihw-cws-69-print-report.pdf

Australian Sports Commission. (2008). Yulunga traditional Indigenous games. https://www.sportaus.gov.au/yulunga

Bhutta, Z. A. (2013). Early nutrition and adult outcomes: Pieces of the puzzle. The Lancet (London, England), 382(9891), 486–487. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60716-3

Brimblecombe, J., Maypilama, E., Colles, S., Scarlett, M., Dhurrkay, J. G., Ritchie, J., & O’Dea, K. (2014). Factors influencing food choice in an Australian Aboriginal community. Qualitative Health Research, 24(3), 387–400. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732314521901

Brimblecombe, J., Van Den Boogaard, C., Ritchie, J., Bailie, R., Coveney, J., & Liberato, S. (2014). From targets to ripples: Tracing the process of developing a community capacity building appraisal tool with remote Australian Indigenous communities to tackle food security. BMC Public Health, 14(1),1–10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-914

Brown, J. D. (2008). Effect size and eta squared. JALT Testing & Evaluation SIG Newsletter, 12(2), 38–43.

Brown, L. (2019). Indigenous young people, disadvantage and the violence of settler colonial education policy and curriculum. Journal of Sociology, 55(1), 54–71. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1440783318794295

Buck, R., & Snook, B. (2020). How might creative learning through dance support resilience? Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 30(3), 289–305. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10911359.2019.1680474

Butler, T. L., Anderson, K., Garvey, G., Cunningham, J., Ratcliffe, J., Tong, A., Whop, L. J., Cass, A., Dickson, M., & Howard, K. (2019). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people’s domains of wellbeing: A comprehensive literature review. Social Science & Medicine, 233, 138–157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2019.06.004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2019.06.004

Cliff, D. P., McNeill, J., Vella, S. A., Howard, S. J., Santos, R., Batterham, M., Melhuish, E., Okely, A. D., & de Rosnay, M. (2017). Adherence to 24-hour movement guidelines for the early years and associations with social-cognitive development among Australian preschool children. BMC Public Health, 17(5), 207–215. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4858-7

Crowe, R., Stanley, R., Probst, Y., & McMahon, A. (2017). Culture and healthy lifestyles: A qualitative exploration of the role of food and physical activity in three urban Australian Indigenous communities. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 41(4), 411–416. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1753-6405.12623

de Vlieger, N., van Rossum, J., Riley, N., Miller, A., Collins, C., & Bucher, T. (2020). Nutrition education in the Australian New South Wales primary school curriculum: Knowledge and attitudes of students and parents. Children, 7(4), Article 24. https://doi.org/10.3390/children7040024 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/children7040024

Dobbins, M., Husson, H., DeCorby, K., & LaRocca, R. L. (2013). School‐based physical activity programs for promoting physical activity and fitness in children and adolescents aged 6 to 18. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (2). https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD007651.pub2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD007651.pub2

Domingues‐Montanari, S. (2017). Clinical and psychological effects of excessive screen time on children. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 53(4), 333–338. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jpc.13462

Downing, K. L., Hnatiuk, J. A., Hinkley, T., Salmon, J., & Hesketh, K. D. (2018). Interventions to reduce sedentary behaviour in 0–5-year-olds: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 52(5), 314–321. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2016-096634

Dunford, M., & Prescott, V. (2017). Impact of physical inactivity as a risk factor for chronic conditions: Australian burden of disease study. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.

Dunphy, K., & Ware, V. (2019). Dance and quality of life for Indigenous communities in Australia. In K. Bond (Ed.), Dance and the quality of life (pp. 495–512). Springer. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-95699-2_28

Eather, N., Morgan, P. J., & Lubans, D. R. (2013). Improving the fitness and physical activity levels of primary school children: Results of the Fit-4-Fun group randomized controlled trial. Preventive Medicine, 56(1), 12–19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2012.10.019 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2012.10.019

Eather, N., Ridley, K., & Leahy, A. (2020). Physiological health benefits of physical activity for young people. In T. Brusseau, S. Fairclough & D. R. Lubans (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of youth physical activity (1st ed., pp. 103–120). Routledge. https://www.routledge.com/The-Routledge-Handbook-of-Youth-Physical-Activity/Brusseau-Fairclough-Lubans/p/book/9781138331549 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003026426-7

Eime, R. M., Young, J. A., Harvey, J. T., Charity, M. J., & Payne, W. R. (2013). A systematic review of the psychological and social benefits of participation in sport for children and adolescents: Informing development of a conceptual model of health through sport. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 10, Article 98. https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-10-98 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-10-98

Evans, J. R., Wilson, R., Coleman, C., Man, W. Y. N., & Olds, T. (2018). Physical activity among Indigenous Australian children and youth in remote and non-remote areas. Social Science & Medicine, 206, 93–99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.04.018 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.04.018

Finch, M., Begley, A., Sutherland, R., Harrison, M., & Collins, C. (2007). Development and reproducibility of a tool to assess school food‐purchasing practices and lifestyle habits of Australian primary school‐aged children. Nutrition & Dietetics, 64(2), 86–92. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-0080.2007.00148.x

Gwynn, J. D., Flood, V. M., D’Este, C. A., Attia, J. R., Turner, N., Cochrane, J., & Wiggers, J. H. (2011). The reliability and validity of a short FFQ among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous rural children. Public Health Nutrition, 14(3), 388–401. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980010001928

Hallal, P. C., Andersen, L. B., Bull, F. C., Guthold, R., Haskell, W., & Ekelund, U. (2012). Global physical activity levels: Surveillance progress, pitfalls, and prospects. The Lancet, 380(9838), 247–257. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60646-1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60646-1

Hardy, L. L., Booth, M. L., & Okely, A. D. (2007). The reliability of the adolescent sedentary activity questionnaire (ASAQ). Preventive Medicine, 45(1), 71–74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2007.03.014 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2007.03.014

Haswell, M., Blignault, I., Fitzpatrick, S., & Jackson Pulver, L. (2013). The social and emotional wellbeing of Indigenous youth: Reviewing and extending the evidence and examining its implications for policy and practice. Muru Marri, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of New South Wales. http://www.naccho.org.au/download/aboriginal-health/IYSEWB_ResearchReport_MM.pdf

Hinkley, T., Timperio, A., Watson, A., Duckham, R. L., Okely, A. D., Cliff, D., Carver, A., & Hesketh, K. D. (2020). Prospective associations with physiological, psychosocial and educational outcomes of meeting Australian 24-hour movement guidelines for the early years. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 17(1), 1–12. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-020-00935-6

Hobbs, M., Pearson, N., Foster, P., & Biddle, S. (2014). Sedentary behaviour and diet across the lifespan: An updated systematic review. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 49, 1179–1188. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2014-093754

Howie, E. K., Joosten, J., Harris, C. J., & Straker, L. M. (2020). Associations between meeting sleep, physical activity or screen time behaviour guidelines and academic performance in Australian school children. BMC Public Health, 20(1), 1–10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-08620-w

Hulteen, R. M., Smith, J. J., Morgan, P. J., Barnett, L. M., Hallal, P. C., Colyvas, K., & Lubans, D. R. (2017). Global participation in sport and leisure-time physical activities: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Preventive Medicine, 95, 14–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.11.027 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.11.027

Jamieson, S., & Heron, B. (2009). Evaluating the effectiveness of a healthy cooking class for Indigenous youth. Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal, 33(4), 6–7.

Jancey, J., & Trevena, H. (2019). Prescribing physical activity and nutrition. Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 30(S1), 3–4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/hpja.303

Jones, S. M., Brown, J. L., Hoglund, W. L., & Aber, J. L. (2010). A school-randomized clinical trial of an integrated social-emotional learning and literacy intervention: Impacts after 1 school year. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78(6), 829–842. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021383

Lakens, D. (2013). Calculating and reporting effect sizes to facilitate cumulative science: A practical primer for t-tests and ANOVAs. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, Article 863. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00863

Lang, J. J., Tomkinson, G. R., Janssen, I., Ruiz, J. R., Ortega, F. B., Leger, L., & Tremblay, M. S. (2018). Making a case for cardiorespiratory fitness surveillance among children and youth. Exercise & Sport Sciences Reviews, 46(2), 66–75. https://doi.org/10.1249/jes.0000000000000138 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000138

Laurson, K. R., Lee, J. A., Gentile, D. A., Walsh, D. A., & Eisenmann, J. C. (2014). Concurrent associations between physical activity, screen time, and sleep duration with childhood obesity. International Scholarly Research Notices, 2014, Article 204540. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/204540 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/204540

Loewen, J., Suhonen, J., & Chen, N.-S. (2017). I-SLATE: Designing a culturally relevant framework for authentic learning. Smart Learning Environments, 4(1), 1–18. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40561-017-0048-4

Love, P., Booth, A., Margerison, C., Nowson, C., & Grimes, C. (2020). Food and nutrition education opportunities within Australian primary schools. Health Promotion International, 35(6), 1291–1301. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/daz132

Lubans, D., Richards, J., Hillman, C., Faulkner, G., Beauchamp, M., Nilsson, M., Kelly, P., Smith, J., Raine, L., & Biddle, S. (2016). Physical activity for cognitive and mental health in youth: A systematic review of mechanisms. Pediatrics, 138(3). https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2016-1642 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2016-1642

Markwick, A., Ansari, Z., Sullivan, M., Parsons, L., & McNeil, J. (2014). Inequalities in the social determinants of health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people: A cross-sectional population-based study in the Australian state of Victoria. International Journal for Equity in Health, 13(1), Article 91. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12939-014-0091-5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12939-014-0091-5

Mavilidi, M. F., Lubans, D. R., Eather, N., Morgan, P. J., & Riley, N. (2018). Preliminary efficacy and feasibility of “Thinking while moving in English”: A program with physical activity integrated into primary school English lessons. Children, 5(8), Article 109. https://doi.org/10.3390/children5080109 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/children5080109

McCuaig, L., & Nelson, A. (2012). Engaging Indigenous students through school-based health education. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.

Metcalf, B., Henley, W., & Wilkin, T. (2012). Effectiveness of intervention on physical activity of children: Systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials with objectively measured outcomes (EarlyBird 54). British Medical Journal, 345, Article e5888. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.e5888 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.e5888

Nathan, N., Elton, B., Babic, M., McCarthy, N., Sutherland, R., Presseau, J., Seward, K., Hodder, R., Booth, D., & Yoong, S. L. (2018). Barriers and facilitators to the implementation of physical activity policies in schools: A systematic review. Preventive Medicine, 107, 45–53. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2017.11.012

Naylor, P., Nettlefold, L., Race, D., Hoy, C., Ashe, M. C., Higgins, J. W., & McKay, H. (2015). Implementation of school based physical activity interventions: A systematic review. Preventive Medicine, 72, 95–115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.12.034 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.12.034

Pearson, N., & Biddle, S. J. (2011). Sedentary behavior and dietary intake in children, adolescents, and adults: A systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 41(2), 178–188. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2011.05.002

Prochaska, J. J., Sallis, J. F., & Long, B. (2001). A physical activity screening measure for use with adolescents in primary care. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 155(5), 554–559. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.155.5.554

Riley, N., Mavilidi, M. F., Kennedy, S. G., Morgan, P. J., & Lubans, D. R. (2021). Dissemination of Thinking while moving in maths: Implementation barriers and facilitators. Translational Journal of the American College of Sports Medicine, 6(1), Article e000148. https://doi.org/10.1249/TJX.0000000000000148 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1249/TJX.0000000000000148

Robinson, G. W., Lee, E., Silburn, S. R., Nagel, P., Leckning, B., & Midford, R. (2020). School-based prevention in very remote settings: A feasibility trial of methods and measures for the evaluation of a social-emotional learning program for Indigenous students in remote northern Australia. Frontiers in Public Health, 8, Article 552878. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.552878 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.552878

Sadegholvad, S., Yeatman, H., Parrish, A.-M., & Worsley, A. (2017). Professionals’ recommended strategies to improve Australian adolescents’ knowledge of nutrition and food systems. Nutrients, 9(8), Article 844. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080844 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080844

Sahota, P., Christian, M., Day, R., & Cocks, K. (2019). The feasibility and acceptability of a primary school-based programme targeting diet and physical activity: The PhunkyFoods Programme. Pilot and Feasibility Studies, 5, Article 152. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40814-019-0542-2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40814-019-0542-2

Schranz, N. K., Olds, T., Boyd, R., Evans, J., Gomersall, S. R., Hardy, L., Hesketh, K., Lubans, D. R., Ridgers, N. D., Straker, L., Vella, S., Ziviani, J., & Tomkinson, G. R. (2016). Results from Australia’s 2016 report card on physical activity for children and youth. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 13(11, Suppl 2), S87–S94. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2016-0345 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2016-0345

Sember, V., Jurak, G., Kovač, M., Morrison, S. A., & Starc, G. (2020). Children’s physical activity, academic performance, and cognitive functioning: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Frontiers in Public Health, 8, Article 307. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.00307 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.00307

Tomkinson, G. R., Lang, J. J., & Tremblay, M. S. (2019). Temporal trends in the cardiorespiratory fitness of children and adolescents representing 19 high-income and upper middle-income countries between 1981 and 2014. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 58(33), 478–486. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2017-097982

Tsujiguchi, H., Hori, D., Kambayashi, Y., Hamagishi, T., Asakura, H., Mitoma, J., Kitaoka, M., Anyenda, E. O., Nguyen, T. T. T., & Yamada, Y. (2018). Relationship between screen time and nutrient intake in Japanese children and adolescents: A cross-sectional observational study. Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, 23(1), 1–12. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12199-018-0725-0

Virgara, R., Phillips, A., Lewis, L., Richardson, M., & Maher, C. (2021). Development of Australian physical activity and screen time guidelines for outside school hours care: An international Delphi study. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 18(1), 1–14. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-020-01061-z

Wahi, G., Parkin, P. C., Beyene, J., Uleryk, E. M., & Birken, C. S. (2011). Effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing screen time in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 165(11), 979–986. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1001/archpediatrics.2011.122

Wareing, A. (2017). School-based physical activity programs for promoting physical activity and fitness in children and adolescents aged 6 to 18. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 24(1), Article e12542. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijn.12542 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/ijn.12542

Western New South Wales Regional Aboriginal Education Team. (n.d.) 8ways – Aboriginal pedagogy. https://www.8ways.online/about

World Health Organization. (2020). Physical activity: Fact Sheet. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/physical-activity

World Health Organization. (2021). Physical inactivity: A global public health problem. https://www.who.int/ncds/prevention/physical-activity/inactivity-global-health-problem/en/

Wu, L., Sun, S., He, Y., & Jiang, B. (2016). The effect of interventions targeting screen time reduction: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine, 95(27), Article e4029. https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000004029 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000004029

Yan, H., Zhang, R., Oniffrey, T. M., Chen, G., Wang, Y., Wu, Y., Zhang, X., Wang, Q., Ma, L., & Li, R. (2017). Associations among screen time and unhealthy behaviors, academic performance, and well-being in Chinese adolescents. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(6), Article 596. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14060596 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14060596




How to Cite

Babic, M., Maynard, J., McLeod, R., Ford, C., Torell, C., & Eather, N. (2023). Evaluation of Yantiin Kalabara – 5 Ways to a Healthier You: A primary school-based education program targeting healthy living choices through interactive workshops. The Australian Journal of Indigenous Education, 52(2). https://doi.org/10.55146/ajie.v52i2.636